3.2.U4: In a eukaryote species there are different chromosomes that carry different genes. - List three ways in which the types of chromosomes within a single cell are different. - State the number of nuclear chromosome types in a human cell.
3.2.U5: Homologous chromosomes carry the same sequence of genes but not necessarily the same alleles of those genes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 152). - Define homologous chromosome. - State a similarity and a difference found between pairs of homologous chromosomes.
3.2.U6: Diploid nuclei have pairs of homologous chromosomes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 155). - Define diploid - State the human cell diploid number - Outline the formation of a diploid cell from two haploid gametes. - State an advantage of being diploid.
3.2.U7: Haploid nuclei have one chromosomes of each pair (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 154). - Define haploid. - State the human cell haploid number. - List example haploid cells.
3.2.U8: The number of chromosomes is a characteristic feature of members of a species (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 155). - State that chromosome number and type is a distinguishing characteristic of a species. - List mechanisms by which a species chromosome number can change.
3.2.A3: Comparison of diploid chromosome numbers of Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Canis familiaris, Oryza sativa, Parascaris equorum (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 155). - State the minimum chromosome number in eukaryotes. - Explain why the typical number of chromosomes in a species is always an even number. - Explain why the chromosome number of a species does not indicate the number of genes in the species. - Explain the relationship between the number of human and chimpanzee chromosomes.
3.2.A1: Cairns’ technique for measuring the length of DNA by autoradiography (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 151). - Describe Cairn’s technique for producing images of DNA molecules from E. coli. - Outline conclusions drawn from the images produced using Cairn’s autoradiography technique.
3.2.NOS: Developments in research follow improvements in techniques- autoradiography was used to establish the length of DNA molecules in chromosomes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 150). - Outline the advancement in knowledge gained from the development of autoradiography techniques.
3.2.U9: A karyogram shows the chromosomes of an organism in homologous pairs of decreasing length (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 157). - Describe the process of creating a karyogram. - List the characteristics by which chromosomes are arranged on the karyogram.
3.3.A2: Description of methods used to obtain cells for karyotype analysis e.g. chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis and the associated risks (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 163). - Describe the two procedures for obtaining fetal cells for production of a karyotype.
3.2.A4: Use karyograms to deduce sex and diagnose Down Syndrome in humans (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 158). - Distinguish between a karyogram and a karyotype. - Deduce the sex of an individual given a karyogram. - Describe the use of a karyogram to diagnose Down syndrome.
3.2.U10: Sex is determined by sex chromosomes and autosomes are chromosomes that do not determine sex (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 157). - Outline the structure and function of the two human sex chromosomes. - Outline gender determination by sex chromosomes. 6.6.U5: A gene on the Y chromosomes causes embryonic gonads to develop as testes and secrete testosterone (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 334). - Describe the mechanism by which the SRY gene regulates embryonic gonad development.
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