3.3.NOS: Making careful observations- meiosis was discovered by microscope examination of dividing germ-line cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 160). - Discuss difficulties in microscopic examination of dividing cells. - Describe the discovery of meiosis.
3.3.U1: One of diploid nucleus divides by meiosis to produce four haploid nuclei (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 160). - Compare divisions of meiosis I and meiosis II.
3.3.S1: Drawing diagrams to show the stages of meiosis resulting in the formation of four haploid cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 164). - Outline the events of prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase in meiosis I and meiosis II. - Draw diagrams of cells in prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase in meiosis I and meiosis II. 3.3.U2: The halving of the chromosomes number allows a sexual life cycle with fusion of gametes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 161). - Compare sexual and asexual life cycles. - Explain why meiosis must occur as part of a sexual life cycle. 3.3.U3: DNA is replicated before meiosis so that all chromosomes consist of two sister chromatids (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 162). - State that DNA is replicated in interphase before meiosis. - Given a diploid number (for example 2n=4), outline the movement and structure of DNA through the stages of meiosis.
10.1.U1: Chromosomes replicate in interphase before meiosis (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 440). - Identify tetrad, bivalent, sister chromatids and non-sister chromatids in diagrams of replicated chromosomes.
3.3.U4: The early stages of meiosis involves pairing of homologous chromosomes and crossing over followed by condensation (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 162). - List three events that occur in prophase 1 of meiosis. - Define bivalent and synapsis. - Outline the process and result of crossing over.
10.1.U2: Crossing over is the exchange of DNA material between non-sister homologous chromatids (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 440). - State that crossing over occurs during prophase I. - Define chiasmata.
10.1.U3: Chiasmata formation between non-sister chromatids can results in an exchange of alleles (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 440). - State two consequences of chiasmata formation between non-sister chromatids.
10.1.S1: Drawing diagrams to show chiasmata formed by crossing over (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 442). - Draw a diagram to illustrate the process and result of crossing over.
3.3.U5: Orientation of pairs of homologous chromosomes prior to separation is random (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 162). - Describe the attachment of spindle microtubules to chromosomes during meiosis I. - Describe random orientation of chromosomes during meiosis I.
10.1.U6: Independent assortment of genes is due to the random orientation of pairs of homologous chromosomes in meiosis 1 (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 444). - Describe random orientation and independent assortment. - Given a parent cell genotype, determine the allele combinations that are possible in the gametes due to independent assortment and random orientation.
10.1.U5: Homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis I (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 443). - Contrast meiosis I with meiosis II.
3.3.U6: Separation of pairs of homologous chromosomes in the first division of meiosis halves the chromosome number (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 163). - Explain why meiosis I is a reductive division. - State that cells are haploid at the end of meiosis I.
10.1.U7: Sister chromatids separate in meiosis II (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 444). - Compare meiosis II with mitosis.
3.4.U3:The alleles of each gene separate into different haploid daughter nuclei during meiosis (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 171). - State the outcome of allele segregation during meiosis.
10.2.U1: Unlinked genes segregate independently as a result of meiosis. (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 445). - State the difference between independent assortment of genes and segregation of alleles. - Describe segregation of alleles and independent assortment of unlinked genes in meiosis. 10.1.U4: Crossing over produces new combinations of alleles on the chromosomes of the haploid cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 441). - Draw a diagram to illustrate the formation of new allele combinations as a results of crossing over.
3.3.U7: Crossing over and random orientation promotes genetic variation (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 165). - Explain how meiosis leads to genetic variation in gametes. - State that the number of chromosome combinations possible due to random orientation is 2n.
3.3.U8: Fusion of gametes from different parents promotes genetic variation (Oxford Biology Course Companion 2. Variatio - Outline the role of fertilization as a source of genetic variation. 3.3.A1: Non-disjunction can cause Down syndrome and other chromosome abnormalities. Studies show age of parents influences chances of non-disjunction (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 167). - Define non-disjunction. - State the result of nondisjunction. - Describe the cause and symptoms of Down syndrome. - Explain the relationship between parental age and chances of non-disjunction.
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