3.2.U3: Eukaryotic chromosomes are linear DNA molecules associated with histone proteins (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 151). - Describe the structure of eukaryotic DNA and associated histone proteins during interphase (chromatin). - Explain why chromatin DNA in interphase is said to look like “beads on a string.”
1.6.U2: Chromosomes condense by supercoiling during mitosis (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 52). - Describe the structure of a replicated chromosome, include the centromere and sister chromatids. - Explain why chromosomes must condense during mitosis.
7.1.U2: Nucleosomes help to supercoil the DNA (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 347). - Draw and label the structure of a nucleosome, including the H1 protein, the octamer core proteins, linker DNA and two wraps of DNA. - Explain the levels of supercoiling (DNA→ nucleosome → beads on a string → 30nm fiber → unreplicated interphase chromosome → replicated metaphase chromosome).
7.1.S2: Utilization of molecular visualization software to analyze the association between protein and DNA within a nucleosome (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 348). - Identify nucleosome structures using molecular visualization software. - Outline the mechanism of histone-DNA association.
1.6.U4: Interphase is a very active phase of the cell cycle with many processes occurring in the nucleus and cytoplasm (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 52). - List example metabolic reactions occurring during cell interphase. - Outline events of G1, S, G2 and G0 phases of interphase.
1.6.U1: Mitosis is division of the nucleus into two genetically identical daughter nuclei (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 51). - State the function of mitosis. - List four processes which involve mitosis. - State the names of the four phases of mitosis. - Draw typical eukaryotic cells as they would appear during the interphase and the four phases of mitosis. - Outline four events that occur during prophase. - Outline the process of metaphase, inclusive of the role of microtubules and the kinetochore. - Outline the process of anaphase. - Outline four events that occur during telophase. 1.6.S1: Identification of phases of mitosis in cells viewed with a microscope or in a micrograph (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 52). - Determine the phase of mitosis of a cell viewed in a micrograph or with a microscope.
1.6.S2: Determination of a mitotic index from a micrograph (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 55). - State the formula for calculation of a mitotic index. - Calculate the mitotic index of a tissue as seen in a micrograph. - Outline the use of mitotic index calculations in diagnosis and treatment of cancer. 1.6.U3: Cytokinesis occurs after mitosis and is different in plants and animal cells (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 55). - Define cytokinesis. - State the difference between mitosis and cytokinesis.. - Contrast cytokinesis in plant and animal cells. - Describe the formation of the cleavage furrow in animal cell cytokinesis. - Describe the formation of the middle lamella and cell wall in plant cell cytokinesis.
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