1.6.U5: Cyclins are involved in the control of the cell cycle (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 56). - Explain the role of cyclin and cyclin-CDK complexes in controlling the cell cycle. - State the role of cyclins D, B, A and E in the cell cycle. 1.6.NOS: Serendipity and scientific discoveries- the discoveries of cyclins was accidental (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 56). - Outline the discovery of cyclins including the role of serendipity. 1.6.U6: Mutagens, oncogenes and metastasis are involved in the development of primary and secondary tumours (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 57). - Define tumour, benign, malignant, metastasis, cancer, mutagen and carcinogen. - Describe why mutagens are not necessarily carcinogens. - Describe how cancer arises, referring to accumulation of mutations over time. - Explain the relationship between oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes and cancer. 1.6.A1: The correlation between smoking and incidence of cancers (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 57). - Explain the use of correlations to determine the relationship between two variables (inclusive of positive and negative correlations). - Explain why the existence of a correlation does not necessitate a causal relationship between two variables. - Calculate a correlation coefficient using Pearson's R. - Determine if a correlation coefficient value is significant. - Define significant as related to the relationship between two variables. - Use epidemiological case study information to outline the relationships between smoking and cancer. 6.4.A2: Causes and consequences of lung cancer (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 316). - Outline the causes of lung cancer. - List symptoms of lung cancer. 6.4.NOS: Obtain evidence for theories- epidemiological studies have contributed to our understanding of the causes of the lung cancer (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 316). - Define epidemiology. - Outline how epidemiological studies contributed to understanding the association between smoking and lung cancer. D.6.NOS: Scientists have a role in informing the public—scientific research has led to a change in public perception of smoking (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 704). - Describe how scientific evidence about the effects of smoking lead to a change in public perception of smoking. D.1.A3: Lack of Vitamin D or calcium can affect bone mineralization and cause rickets or osteomalacia (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 668). - Explain the relationship between vitamin D, calcium, osteomalacia and skin cancer.
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