1.3.U1: Phospholipids form bilayers in water due to the amphipathic properties of phospholipid molecules (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 26). -Draw a simplified diagram of the structure of the phospholipid, including a phosphate-glycerol head and two fatty acid tails. -Define hydrophilic and hydrophobic. -Define amphipathic and outline the amphipathic properties of phospholipids. -Explain why phospholipids form bilayers in water, with reference to hydrophilic phosphate heads and two hydrophobic hydrocarbon tails.
1.3.NOS1: Using models as representations of the real world-there are alternative models of membrane structures (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 26). - Explain what models are and their purposes in science. - Describe the observations and conclusions drawn by Gorter and Grendel in discovering the structure of cell membranes.
1.3.S2: Analysis of evidence from electron microscopy that led to the proposal of the Davson-Danielli model (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 28). - Describe the observations and conclusions drawn by Davson and Danielli in discovering the structure of cell membranes.
1.3.S3: Analysis of the falsification of the Davson-Danielli model that led to the Singer-Nicolson model (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 29). - Describe conclusions about cell membrane structure drawn from freeze-etched electron micrograph images of the cell membrane. - Describe conclusions about cell membrane structure drawn from cell fusion experiments. - Describe conclusions about cell membrane structure drawn from improvements in techniques for determining the structure of membrane proteins.. - Compare the Davson-Danielli model of membrane structure with the Singer-Nicolson model.
1.3.NOS2: Falsification of theories with one theory being superseded by another-evidence falsified the Davison-Danielli model (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 27). - Describe why the understanding of cell membrane structure has changed over time.
1.3.S1: Drawing of the fluid mosaic model (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 31).- Draw and label the structure of membranes. Include: Phospholipid bilayer Integral proteins shown spanning the membrane Peripheral proteins on membrane surface Protein channels with a pore Glycoproteins with a carbohydrate side chain Cholesterol between phospholipids in the hydrophobic region An indication of thickness (10nm) 1.3.U2: Membrane proteins are diverse in terms of structure, position in the membranes and function (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 30). - State the primary function of the cell membrane. - Contrast the structure of integral and peripheral proteins. - List at least four functions (with example) of membrane bound proteins. - Contrast the two types of transport proteins: pumps and channels.
1.3.U3: Cholesterol is a component of animal cell membranes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 32). - Identify the structure of cholesterol in molecular diagrams. - Describe the structural placement of cholesterol within the cell membrane.
1.3.A1: Cholesterol in mammalian membranes reduces membrane fluidity and permeability to some solutes (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 33). - Describe the function of cholesterol molecules in the cell membrane.
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