1.1.U3: Cell Surface to volume is an important limitation to cell size (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 9). - Outline the activities occurring in the volume and at the surface of the cell. - Calculate the surface area, volume and SA:V ratio of a cube. - Explain the benefits and limitations of using cubes to model the surface area and volume of a cell. - Describe the relationship between cell size and the SA:V ratio of the cell. - Explain why cells are often limited in size by the SA:V ratio. - List three adaptations of cells that maximize the SA: volume ratio.
1.4.U1: Particles move across membranes by simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis and active transport (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 35). - Describe simple diffusion. - Explain two examples of simple diffusion of molecules into and out of cells. - Outline factors that regulate the rate of diffusion. - Describe facilitated diffusion. - Describe one example of facilitated diffusion through a protein channel. - Define osmosis. - Predict the direction of water movement based upon differences in solute concentration. - Compare active transport and passive transport. - Explain one example of active transport of molecules into and out of cells through protein pumps.
1.4.A2: Tissues or organs to be used in medical procedures must be bathed in a solution with the same osmolarity as the cytoplasm to prevent osmosis (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 44). - Explain what happens to cells when placed in solutions of the same osmolarity, higher osmolarity and lower osmolarity. - Outline the use of normal saline in medical procedures.
1.4.NOS: Experimental design- accurate quantitative measurement in osmosis experiments are essential (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 43). - Define quantitative and qualitative. - Determine measurement uncertainty of a measurement tool. - Explain the need for repeated measurements (multiple trials) in experimental design. - Explain the need to control variables in experimental design.
1.4.S1: Estimation of osmolarity in tissues by bathing samples in hypotonic and hypertonic solutions (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 41). Practical 2 - Define osmolarity, isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic. - Calculate the percentage change between measurement values. - Calculate the mean value of a data set. - Calculate the standard deviation value of a data set. - State that the term standard deviation is used to summarize the spread of values around the mean, and that 68% of the values fall within one standard deviation of the mean. - Explain how the standard deviation is useful for comparing the means and the spread of data between two or more samples. - Determine the correct type of graph to represent experimental results. - State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data. - Accurately graph mean and standard deviation of data sets. - Determine osmolarity of a sample given changes in mass when placed in solutions of various tonicities.
1.4.U2: The fluidity of membranes allows materials to be taken into cells by endocytosis or released by exocytosis (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 34/35). - Describe the fluid properties of the cell membrane and vesicles. - Explain vesicle formation via endocytosis. - Outline two examples of materials brought into the cell via endocytosis. - Explain release of materials from cells via exocytosis. - Outline two examples of materials released from a cell via exocytosis.
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