2.2.U1: Water molecules are polar and hydrogen bonds form between them (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 68). - Describe the structure of an atom (in terms of protons, neutrons and electrons). - Contrast ion with atom. - Define anion and cation. - Contrast covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonds. - Write the molecular formula for water and draw the atomic structure of the molecule. - Describe the cause and effect of the polar nature of water. - Describe where and how water is able to form hydrogen bonds.
2.2.NOS: Use of theories to explain natural phenomena- the theory that hydrogen bonds form between water molecules explain the properties of water (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 69). - State why scientists cannot prove without a doubt that hydrogen bonds exist between water molecules.
2.2.U2: Hydrogen bonding and dipolarity explain the cohesive, adhesive, thermal and solvent properties of water (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 69). - Contrast adhesion with cohesion. - Outline an example of the cohesive property of water being of benefit to life. - Outline an example of the adhesive property of water being of benefit to life. - Explain three thermal properties of water that are useful to living organisms. - Outline a benefit to life of water's high specific heat capacity. - Outline a benefit to life of water's high latent heat of vaporization. - Outline a benefit to life of water's high boiling point. - Explain why is water such a good solvent. - List the types of molecules that water will dissolve.
2.2.A1: Comparison of the thermal properties of water with those of methane (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 71). - Compare and contrast the physical properties of methane and water. - Explain why water and methane have different thermal properties based on their molecular structures.
2.2.A2: Use of water as a coolant in sweat (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 72). - Explain sweating as a mechanism to cool the body. 2.2.U3: Substances can be hydrophilic or hydrophobic (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 70). - State that polar and ionic molecules are hydrophilic. - State that non-polar, non-ionic molecules are hydrophobic. - Given a diagram of a molecular structure, determine if the molecule is hydrophilic or hydrophobic. 2.2.A3: Modes of transport of glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, and sodium in blood in relations to their solubility in water (Oxford Biology Course Companion page 72). - State if the following molecules are hydrophobic or hydrophilic: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, and sodium chloride. - Outline the mechanism of transport in the blood of the following molecules: glucose, amino acids, cholesterol, fats, oxygen, and sodium chloride.
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